Working Definition of Antisemitism (from IHRA)
Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.
Manifestations might include the targeting of the state of Israel,
conceived as a Jewish collectivity. However, criticism of Israel similar
to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as
antisemitic. Antisemitism frequently charges Jews with conspiring to
harm humanity, and it is often used to blame Jews for “why things go
wrong.” It is expressed in speech, writing, visual forms and action, and
employs sinister stereotypes and negative character traits.
Contemporary examples of antisemitism in public life, the media,
schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into
account the overall context, include, but are not limited to:
- Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing or harming of Jews
in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion.
- Making mendacious, dehumanizing, demonizing, or stereotypical
allegations about Jews as such or the power of Jews as collective — such
as, especially but not exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish
conspiracy or of Jews controlling the media, economy, government or
other societal institutions.
- Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible for real or imagined
wrongdoing committed by a single Jewish person or group, or even for
acts committed by non-Jews.
- Denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or
intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of
National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during
World War II (the Holocaust).
- Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.
- Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel, or to the
alleged priorities of Jews worldwide, than to the interests of their own
- Denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g.,
by claiming that the existence of a State of Israel is a racist
- Applying double standards by requiring of it a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation.
- Using the symbols and images associated with classic antisemitism
(e.g., claims of Jews killing Jesus or blood libel) to characterize
Israel or Israelis.
- Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis.
- Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the state of Israel.